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Tongue is a muskulses organ, which is connected by speech with the function by Deglutition, by taste and. It appears as an easily accessible organ for the estimate of the health of an individual and shows the condition of the hydration of the body. It is said that tongue of the mirrors of the gastrointestinal system is and is thought somehow abnormal work of the stomach and the intestines about the tongue.

Somewhat characteristic changes enter the tongue in some certain diseases. That is, why the examination of the tongue is very substantial and will give some reference points for diagnosis. All doctors examine the tongue and them regard the changes at size of, form, color, humidity, layer, condition of Papillae and movements ect.

Appearance of the tongue in some abnormal conditions: –

1) Movements of the tongue: –

a) In one paralysis of the tongue movements of the body (Hemiplegia) provided to parylised the side with sides, as if out-confessed.

b) Tremulus movement of the tongue is seen in diseases as thyrotoxicosis, Delirium tremens and parkinsonisum. Tremor is seen also with nervous patients.

c) In the progressive bulbar paralysis will waste and paralysis of the tongue with fraying. Finally the tongue keeps shrunk and lies functionless in the floor of the mouth. This condition is connected with the Trpfeln of the saliva and the loss of the speech.

d) In the Chorea (involuntary rhythmic movements) the patient possibly in the situation to be cannot do to hold the out-standing tongue in the remainder it, will move involuntarily.

2) Humidity of the tongue: –

The humidity of the tongue gives some references over the condition to the hydration of the body. Emptying of which servo lumen leads to the circulating peripheral loss, which by nausea, vomiting, more dryly and parched tongue of the weakness, the thirst, which restlessness, which anorexia nervosa is marked.

Dryness of the tongue is seen into the following conditions.

a) Diarrhea
b) Late times of the strict illness
c) Advanced uremia
d) Hypovolumic impact
e) Heat removal
f) Hyponatraemia
g) Acute intestinales obstacle
h) Verhungern
i) Prlonged chamfered.

3) Change in the color of the tongue: –

a) Central Cyanosis: –

Cyanosis is the bluish decolorization of the Schleimmembrane, which are suitable to be reduced into the quantity of the oxygen in the blood. This is seen in heart failure, breathing loss and in oxygen deficiency. In the Cyanosiszunge becomes Lippenect slat-bluish.

b) Jaundice: –

This is the yellowish decolorization of all Schleimoberflchen of the body (including tongue) because of the increase of the Bilirubins of the blood. Jaundice seen in hepatitis, in Gallenwegshindernis, into increased destruction of RBCs and in ect

c) Advanced uremia: –

This is the increase of the urea and other nitrogenous waste products of the blood because of the kidney loss. Here the tongue in the color becomes brown.

d) Keton acidosis: –

This is the acidosis with accumulation of the Ketonkrper, which are seen main in diabetes mellitus. Here the tongue with a typical Ketongeruch of the mouth becomes brown.

e) Riboflavinmangel: –

Lack of this vitamin (vitamin B2) produces megenta color of the tongue with Soreness and the column of the lips.

f) Niacinmangel: –

Lack of the Niacins (vitamin B3) and some other b-complicated results of vitamin in the bright scarlet or in the strong red tongue.

g) Anemia: –

It is the decrease at the hemoglobin percentage of the blood. In the strict anemia tongue becomes slats.

4) Coat on the tongue: –

a) Bad breath: –

The main cause for bad breath is arrangement of a paste-like layer (bio film) on the tongue, which accommodates thousands of the anaerobic bacterium with the result of production the offenssive gases. Those, which weight about bad breath, can have strong layer on the rear part of the tongue.

b) Typhoid fever-well-behaved fever: –

In the typhoid fever-like fever tongue becomes the white, which is like a fur coared.

c) Candidiasis; –

It is a mushroom-like infection, which affects the Schleimoberflchen of the body. On the tongue white injuries will strip there.

d) In diabetes and in the Hypoadrenalism will strip white injuries there.

e) Sekundrsyphilis: –

Syphilis is A sexually – through trepenoma pallidum infection causes transferred ill. In the secondary stage of this illness we can see slimy marks, which are the painless, smooth white, which is opalisierende plaques glystening, which cannot be away easily rubbed.

f) Leokoplakia: –

Here white are seen keratotic to marks on the tongue and the oral cavity. This is a prekanzerser condition.

g) AIDS: –

With this patients haariger Leukoplakia is seen.

h) Peritonitis: –

It is the inflammation peritonium (internal coverage of the abdomen, which covers also the intestines and in position holds it), in this condition is white Furring of the tongue there.

i) Acute illness: –

Furring is seen also into some acute diseases.

5) Papillae: –

These are small projections on that rongue, which is connected with taste. There is different kind of Papillae on the healthy tongue. In some diseases there are somewhat abnormal changes, which are following.

a) Haarige tongue: –

This condition is because of the extension filiform of the Papillae, those into poor mouth hygiene, in general Debility and in digesting complaints to be seen.

b) Geographical tongue: –

Here irregular red and white marks appear on the tongue. These injuries looks like a geographical diagram. Does not excact a cause admits.

c) Middle rhombic Glossitis: –

In this condition there is smooth kntenfrmigen red range in the rear middle line of the tongue. This is a kongenitaler condition.

d) Lack of nourishing: –

In nutrional the lack there is the Glossitis (inflammation of the tongue) leading to the wart-like Hypertrophie, which of the Atrophie one follows.

e) Property-well-behaved walking Glossitis: –

It is inflamatory a condition of the tongue, in which repeated circular ranges of the Desquamation of Papillae appear on the tongue, which shift from range to range on few days.

f) Thiamin and Riboflavinmangel: –

Hypertrophische cause lack of these vitamins filiform and mushroom-shaped Papillae.

g) Niacin and lack of iron: –

In this condition there are Atrophie of Papillae. Smooth tongue is found in the lack of iron.

h) Vitamin Amangel: –

This causes gepflogene tongue.

i) In megapraise reading TIC nourishing moderate anemia becomes tongue smoothly.

j) Lack of the Fol acid: –

Here macrocytic megapraise reading TIC anemia with Glossitis is seen.

k) Cyanocoblamine lack: –

Here Glossitis with macrocytic megapraise reading TIC anemia and auxiliary neuropathy is found.

l) Crowd laughter fever; –

In these Streptokokken infection there is the bright red Papillae, which disappears to increased Papillae on the bright red surface from a strong white fur, later the white coat, leaving and strawberry tongue designated.

6) Ulcers on the tongue: —

a) Apthous ulcer: –

These are all around painful ulcers appear in stressed individuals frequently. May be connected with food allergy. Usual places of assembly are tongue, lips, Mundmucosa and ect.

b) Herpessimplexbetrieb: –

It is the acute bubble-shaped eruptions, which are produced by Herpessimplexbetriebvirus. If this Vesicles breaks, he forms ulcers.

c) Ulcer in the cancer: –

Cancer-well-behaved ulcers have inverted edges with hard lower surface. Will bleed also seen. Cancer of the tongue is general into the tobacco chewers.

d) Syphiliti ulcers: –

Syphiliti column are longitudinal in the direction. In the Primrsyphilis genital Extrachancre is seen on the tongue. In the Sekundrsyphilis repeated flat of ulcers on the Unteroberflche and the sides of the tongue are seen. In tertiary syphilis Gumma can be seen on the avoiding LINE of the Dorsum of the tongue.

e) Tooth-medical ulcers: –

These ulcers are produced by sharp edges of the karisen teeth.