Free Nutritional Health Information and Tools

Coenzyme Q10


Table Of ContentsPrevious PageNext Page

Coenzyme Q10

Background

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is produced by the human body and is necessary for the basic functioning of cells. CoQ10 levels are reported to decrease with age and to be low in patients with some chronic diseases such as heart conditions, muscular dystrophies, Parkinson's disease, cancer, diabetes, and HIV/AIDS. Some prescription drugs may also lower CoQ10 levels. Levels of CoQ10 in the body can be increased by taking CoQ10 supplements, although it is not clear that replacing "low CoQ10" is beneficial. CoQ10 has been used, recommended, or studied for numerous conditions, and remains controversial as a treatment in many areas.

Synonyms

AndelirŽ, CoenzymeQ, Co-enzyme Q10, Coenzyme Q (50), CoQ, CoQ10, CoQ (50) , Co-Q10, CoQ-10, 2,3 dimethoxy-5 methyl-6-decaprenyl benzoquinone, HeartcinŽ, idebenone (synthetic analogue), mitoquinone, Q10, NeuquinoneŽ, TaidecanoneŽ, ubidecarenone, ubiquinone, ubiquinone-10, ubiquinone-Q10, UdekinonŽ, vitamin q10, vitamin Q10.

Evidence

These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider.

Uses based on scientific evidenceGrade*High blood pressure (hypertension)
Preliminary research suggests that CoQ10 causes small decreases in blood pressure (systolic and possibly diastolic). Low blood levels of CoQ10 have been found in people with hypertension, although it is not clear if CoQ10 "deficiency" is a cause of high blood pressure. It is not known what dose is safe or effective. CoQ10 is less commonly used to treat hypertension than it is for other heart conditions such as congestive heart failure. Well-designed long-term research is needed to strengthen this recommendation.

B

Heart failure
The evidence for CoQ10 in the treatment of heart failure is controversial and remains unclear. Different levels of disease severity have been studied (New York Heart Association classes I through IV). Some studies report improved heart function (ejection fraction, stroke volume, cardiac index, exercise tolerance), while others find no improvements. Most trials are small or not well designed. In some parts of Europe, Russia, and Japan, CoQ10 is considered a part of standard therapy for congestive heart failure patients. Better research is needed in this area, studying effects on quality of life, hospitalization, death rates, before a recommendation can be made.

C

Cardiomyopathy (dilated, hypertrophic)
There is conflicting evidence from research on the use of CoQ10 in patients with dilated or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Different levels of disease severity have been studied (New York Heart Association heart failure classes I through IV). Some studies report improved heart function (ejection fraction, stroke volume, cardiac index, exercise tolerance), while others find no improvements. Most trials are small or not well designed. Better research is needed in this area before a recommendation can be made.

C

Heart attack (acute myocardial infarction)
There is preliminary human study of CoQ10 given to patients within three days after a heart attack. Reductions in deaths, abnormal heart rhythms, and second heart attacks are reported, although better research is needed before a firm conclusion can be drawn.

C

Breast cancer
Several studies in women with breast cancer report reduced levels of CoQ10 in diseased breast tissue or blood. It has been suggested by some researchers that raising CoQ10 levels with supplements might be helpful. However, it is not clear if CoQ10 is beneficial in these patients, or if the low levels of CoQ10 may actually be a part of the body's natural response to cancer, helping to fight disease. Supplementation with CoQ10 has not been proven to reduce cancer, and has not been compared to other forms of treatment for breast cancer.

C

Alzheimer's disease
Promising preliminary evidence from human research suggests that CoQ10 supplements may slow down, but not cure, dementia in people with Alzheimer's disease. Additional well-designed studies are needed to confirm this result before a firm recommendation can be made.

C

Anthracycline chemotherapy heart toxicity
Anthracycline chemotherapy drugs, such as doxorubicin (AdriamycinŽ), are commonly used to treat cancers such as breast cancer or lymphoma. Heart damage (cardiomyopathy) is a major concern with the use of anthracyclines, and CoQ10 has been suggested to protect the heart. However, studies in this area are small and not high quality and the effects of CoQ10 remain unclear.

C

Angina (chest pain from clogged heart arteries)
Preliminary small human studies suggest that CoQ10 may reduce angina and improve exercise tolerance in people with clogged heart arteries. Better studies are needed before a firm recommendation can be made.

C

Heart protection during surgery
Several studies suggest that the function of the heart may be improved after major heart surgeries such as coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) or valve replacement when CoQ10 is given to patients before or during surgery. Better studies that measure effects on long-term heart function and survival are necessary before a recommendation can be made.

C

Exercise performance
The effects of CoQ10 on exercise performance have been tested in athletes, normal healthy individuals, and in people with chronic lung disease. Results are variable, with some research suggesting benefits, and other studies showing no effects. Most trials have not been well-designed. Better research is necessary before a firm conclusion can be drawn.

C

HIV/AIDS
There is limited evidence that natural levels of CoQ10 in the body may be reduced in people with HIV/AIDS. There is no reliable scientific research showing that CoQ10 supplements have any effect on this disease.

C

Mitochondrial diseases and Kearns-Sayre syndrome
COQ10 is often recommended for patients with mitochondrial diseases, including myopathies, encephalomyopathies, and Kearns-Sayre syndrome. Several early studies report improvements in metabolism and physical endurance in patients with these conditions after treatment with CoQ10, although most available research is not high-quality or definitive. Better studies are needed before a strong recommendation can be made.

C

Muscular dystrophies
Preliminary studies in patients with muscular dystrophy taking COQ10 supplements describe improvements in exercise capacity, heart function, and overall quality of life. Additional research is needed in this area.

C

Gum disease (periodontitis)
Preliminary human studies suggest possible benefits of CoQ10 taken by mouth or placed on the skin or gums in the treatment of periodontitis. Improvements in bleeding, swelling, and pain are reported. However, available studies are small and not high-quality. Better research is needed before a conclusion can be drawn.

C

Friedreich's ataxia
Preliminary research reports promising evidence for the use of CQ10 in the treatment of Friedreich's ataxia. Further evidence is necessary before a firm conclusion can be drawn.

C

Diabetes
Preliminary evidence suggests that CoQ10 does not affect blood sugar levels in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, and does not alter the need for diabetes medications.

D

* Key to grades
A:
Strong scientific evidence for this use;
B:
Good scientific evidence for this use;
C:
Unclear scientific evidence for this use;
D:
Fair scientific evidence against this use (it may not work);
F:
Strong scientific evidence against this use (it likely does not work).

Uses based on tradition or theory
The below uses are based on tradition or scientific theories. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), antioxidant, asthma, Bell's palsy, breathing difficulties, cancer, cerebellar ataxia, chronic fatigue syndrome, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), deafness, decreased sperm motility (idiopathic asthenozoospermia), stomach ulcer, gingivitis, hair loss (and hair loss from chemotherapy), heart irregular beats, hepatitis B, high cholesterol, Huntington's chorea/disease, immune system diseases, infertility, insomnia, kidney failure, leg swelling (edema), life extension, liver enlargement or disease, lung cancer, lung disease, macular degeneration, MELAS syndrome, MIDD (maternally inherited diabetes mellitus and deafness), mitral valve prolapse, nutrition, obesity, Papillon-Lefevre Syndrome, Parkinson's disease,physical performance, prevention of muscle damage from "statin" cholesterol-lowering drugs, psychiatric disorders, QT-interval shortening; reduction of phenothiazine drug side effects, reduction of tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) drug side effects.

Dosing

The below doses are based on scientific research, publications, traditional use, or expert opinion. Many herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested, and safety and effectiveness may not be proven. Brands may be made differently, with variable ingredients, even within the same brand. The below doses may not apply to all products. You should read product labels, and discuss doses with a qualified healthcare provider before starting therapy.

Standardization

Standardization involves measuring the amount of certain chemicals in products to try to make different preparations similar to each other. It is not always known if the chemicals being measured are the "active" ingredients. CoQ10 products sold in stores have been found to contain variable amounts of claimed ingredients. Early studies used low doses, while more recent research suggests that higher doses may be safe and have greater effects.

By mouth (oral):

High blood pressure : Studies have used 30 to 360 milligrams of CoQ10 per day. The ideal starting dose is not known. Some people appear to respond more than others for unclear reasons.

Congestive heart failure/cardiomyopathy : Studies have used 100 to 200 milligrams of CoQ10 per day, or 2 milligrams per kilogram of body weight per day. Limited research suggests that up to 600 milligrams per day may be tolerated. CoQ10 has been tested alone or as an addition to prescription drugs for these conditions. It is recommended that patients with these conditions speak with a doctor before starting new therapies.

Heart attack : 120 milligrams of CoQ10 per day started three days after a heart attack has been studied, although safety and effectiveness are not known. It is recommended that patients speak with a doctor before starting new therapies.

Breast cancer : 90 milligrams of CoQ10 per day in combination with multivitamin/multi-mineral supplementation has been studied.

Alzheimer's disease : Research has used doses of CoQ10 ranging from 60 milligrams once per day up to 120 milligrams three times a day. A preliminary study reports that higher doses may be more beneficial, although these effects are have not been proven.

Anthracycline chemotherapy heart toxicity : Preliminary research has used 50 to 100 milligrams of CoQ10 per day in children and adults receiving doxorubicin (AdriamycinŽ) chemotherapy.

Angina : 60 milligrams daily for up to four weeks has been studied.

Heart protection during surgery : Several studies in the 1980s and early 1990s used 30 to 150 milligrams of CoQ10 per day, starting one to two weeks prior to surgery, continuing for up to one month after surgery. Patients should speak with their surgeons before starting new therapies.

Exercise performance : 90 to 150 milligrams per day of CoQ10 has been studied.

HIV/AIDS : 200 milligrams of CoQ10 per day has been studied, although effectiveness has not been proven.

Muscular dystrophy : 100 milligrams of CoQ10 per day divided into three doses was used in one study.

Mitochondrial diseases : 120 to 160 milligrams per day, or 2 milligrams per kilogram of body weight per day, has been studied.

Gum disease (periodontitis) : 5 milliliters (1 teaspoonful) per day, concentrated to 200 milligrams of CoQ10 per milliliter of corn oil, taken by mouth in divided doses has been used in one study.

On the skin (topical):

Gum disease (periodontitis) : 85 milligrams of CoQ10 per milliliter of soybean oil suspension has been applied to the surface of affected areas once weekly using a plastic syringe, in one study.

Through the veins (intravenous):

Heart protection during surgery : Most studies of CoQ10 for heart protection during bypass surgery have used CoQ10 taken by mouth. One study used intravenous CoQ10, 5 milligrams per kilogram of body weight, given 2 hours prior to surgery. Safety is not clear. Any therapies used close to the time of surgery should be discussed with your surgeon.

Children (younger than 18 years)

There is not enough scientific information to recommend the safe use of Coenzyme Q10 in children. A qualified healthcare provider should be consulted before considering use. One small study used 100 milligrams of CoQ10 by mouth twice daily to reduce the heart toxicity of anthracycline (doxorubicin) chemotherapy. A different small study used 3 to 3.4 milligrams per kilogram of body weight per day in children with mitral valve prolapse.

Safety

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare provider immediately if you experience side effects.

Allergies

In theory, allergic reactions to supplements containing CoQ10 may occur.

Side Effects and Warnings

There are few serious reported side effects of CoQ10. Side effects are typically mild and brief, stopping without any treatment needed. Reactions may include nausea, vomiting, stomach upset, heartburn, diarrhea, loss of appetite, skin itching, rash, insomnia, headache, dizziness, irritability, increased light sensitivity of the eyes, fatigue, or flu-like symptoms.

CoQ10 may lower blood sugar levels. Caution is advised in patients with diabetes or hypoglycemia, and in those taking drugs, herbs, or supplements that affect blood sugar. Serum glucose levels may need to be monitored by a healthcare provider, and medication adjustments may be necessary.

Low blood platelet number was reported in one person taking CoQ10. However, other factors (viral infection, other medications) may have been responsible. Lowering of platelets may increase the risk of bruising or bleeding, although there are no known reports of bleeding from CoQ10. Caution is advised in people who have bleeding disorders or who are taking drugs that increase the risk of bleeding. Dosing adjustments may be necessary.

CoQ10 may decrease blood pressure, and caution is advised in patients with low blood pressure or taking blood pressure medications. Elevations of liver enzymes have been reported rarely, and caution is advised in people with liver disease or taking medications that may harm the liver. CoQ10 may lower blood levels of cholesterol or triglycerides. Thyroid hormone levels may be altered based on one study.

Organ damage due to lack of oxygen/blood flow during intense exercise has been reported in a study of patients with heart disease, although the specific role of CoQ10 is not clear. Vigorous exercise is often discouraged in people using CoQ10 supplements.

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

There is not enough scientific evidence to support the safe use of CoQ10 during pregnancy or breastfeeding.

References

1. Albano CB, Muralikrishnan D, Ebadi M. Distribution of coenzyme Q homologues in brain. Neurochem Res 2002;27(5):359-368.

2. Baggio E, Gandini R, Plancher AC, et al. Italian multicenter study on the safety and efficacy of coenzyme Q10 as adjunctive therapy in heart failure. CoQ10 Drug Surveillance Investigators. Mol Aspects Med 1994;15 Suppl:s287-s294.

3. Baker SK, Tarnopolsky MA. Targeting cellular energy production in neurological disorders. Expert Opin Investig Drugs 2003;12 (10) :1655-79.

4. Balercia G, Arnaldi G, Lucarelli G et al. Effects of exogenous CoQ10 administration in patients with idiopathic asthenozoospermia. Int J Andrology 2000;Suppl 23:43.

5. Batino M, Ferreiro MS, Quiles JL, et al. Alterations in the oxidation products, antioxidant markers, antioxidant capacity and lipid patterns in plasma of patients affected by Papillon-Lefevre syndrome. Free Radic Res 2003;37(6):603-9.

6. Blasi MA, Bovina C, Carella G et al. Does coenzyme Q10 play a role in opposing oxidative stress in patients with age-related macular degeneration? Ophthalmologica 2001;215(1):51-54.

7. Bleske B, Willis R, Anthony M, et al. The effect of pravastatin and atorvastatin on coenzyme Q10. Am Heart J 2001;142(2):e2.

8. Bonetti A, Solito F, Carmosino G, et al. Effect of ubidecarenone oral treatment on aerobic power in middle-aged trained subjects. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2000;40(1):51-57.

9. Braun B, Clarkson PM, Freedson PS, et al. Effects of coenzyme Q10 supplementation on exercise performance, VO2max, and lipid peroxidation in trained cyclists. Int J Sport Nutr 1991;1(4):353-365.

10. Bresolin N, Doriguzzi C, Ponzetto C, et al. Ubidecarenone in the treatment of mitochondrial myopathies: a multi-center double-blind trial. J Neurol Sci 1990;100(1-2):70-78.

11. Burke BE, Neuenschwander R, Olson RD. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of coenzyme Q10 in isolated systolic hypertension. South Med J 2001;94(11):1112-1117.

12. Chello M, Mastroroberto P, Romano R, et al. Protection by coenzyme Q10 from myocardial reperfusion injury during coronary artery bypass grafting. Ann Thorac Surg 1994;58(5):1427-1432.

13. Chen RS, Huang CC, Chu NS. Coenzyme Q10 treatment in mitochondrial encephalomyopathies. Short-term double-blind, crossover study. Eur Neurol 1997;37(4):212-218.

14. Chen YF, Lin YT, Wu SC. Effectiveness of coenzyme Q10 on myocardial preservation during hypothermic cardioplegic arrest. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1994;107(1):242-247.

15. de Bustos F, Jimenez-Jimenez FJ, Molina JA, et al. Serum levels of coenzyme Q10 in patients with multiple sclerosis. Acta Neurol Scand 2000;101(3):209-211.

16. Digiesi V, Cantini F, Brodbeck B. Effect of coenzyme Q10 on essential arterial hypertension. Curr Ther Res 1990;47(5):841-845.

17. Eaton S, Skinner R, Hale JP, et al. Plasma coenzyme Q(10) in children and adolescents undergoing doxorubicin therapy. Clin Chim Acta 2000;302(1-2):1-9.

18. Eriksson JG, Forsen TJ, Mortensen SA, et al. The effect of coenzyme Q10 administration on metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Biofactors 1999;9(2-4):315-318.

19. Folkers K, Langsjoen P, Willis R, et al. Lovastatin decreases coenzyme Q levels in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1990;87(22):8931-8934.

20. Folkers K, Vadhanavikit S, Mortensen SA. Biochemical rationale and myocardial tissue data on the effective therapy of cardiomyopathy with coenzyme Q10. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1985;82(3):901-904.

21. Fujimoto S, Kurihara N, Hirata K, et al. Effects of coenzyme Q10 administration on pulmonary function and exercise performance in patients with chronic lung diseases. Clin Investig 1993;71(8 Suppl):S162-S166.

22. Gazdikova K, Gvozdjakova A, Kucharska J, et al. Effect of coenzyme Q10 in patients with kidney diseases. Cas Lek Cesk 2000;140:307-310.

23. Ghirlanda G, Oradei A, Manto A, et al. Evidence of plasma CoQ10-lowering effect by HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Clin Pharmacol 1993;33(3):226-229.

24. Gutzmann H, Hadler D. Sustained efficacy and safety of idebenone in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease: update on a 2-year double-blind multicentre study. J Neural Transm Suppl 1998;54:301-310.

25. Hanioka T, Tanaka M, Ojima M, et al. Effect of topical application of coenzyme Q10 on adult periodontitis. Mol Aspects Med 1994;15 Suppl:s241-s248.

26. Henriksen JE, Andersen CB, Hother-Nielsen O, et al. Impact of ubiquinone (coenzyme Q10) treatment on glycaemic control, insulin requirement and well-being in patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Diabet Med 1999;16(4):312-318.

27. Ishiyama T, Morita Y, Toyama S, et al. A clinical study of the effect of coenzyme Q on congestive heart failure. Jpn Heart J 1976;17(1):32-42.

28. Jimenez-Jimenez FJ, Molina JA, de Bustos F, et al. Serum levels of coenzyme Q10 in patients with Parkinson's disease. J Neural Transm 2000;107(2):177-181.

29. Judy WV, Stogsdill WW, Folkers K. Myocardial preservation by therapy with coenzyme Q10 during heart surgery. Clin Investig 1993;71(8 Suppl):S155-S161.

30. Kamikawa T, Kobayashi A, Yamashita T, et al. Effects of coenzyme Q10 on exercise tolerance in chronic stable angina pectoris. Am J Cardiol 1985;56(4):247-251.

31. Khatta M, Alexander BS, Krichten CM, et al. The effect of coenzyme Q10 in patients with congestive heart failure. Ann Intern Med 2000;132(8):636-640.

32. Lampertico M, Comis S. Italian multicenter study on the efficacy and safety of coenzyme Q10 as adjuvant therapy in heart failure. Clin Investig 1993;71(8 Suppl):S129-S133.

33. Landbo C, Almdal TP. [Interaction between warfarin and coenzyme Q10]. Ugeskr Laeger 1998;160(22):3226-3227.

34. Langsjoen H, Langsjoen P, Langsjoen P, et al. Usefulness of coenzyme Q10 in clinical cardiology: a long-term study. Mol Aspects Med 1994;15 Suppl:s165-s175.

35. Langsjoen P, Langsjoen P, Willis R, et al. Treatment of essential hypertension with coenzyme Q10. Mol Aspects Med 1994;15 Suppl:S265-S272.

36. Langsjoen PH, Folkers K, Lyson K, et al. Pronounced increase of survival of patients with cardiomyopathy when treated with coenzyme Q10 and conventional therapy. Int J Tissue React 1990;12(3):163-168.

37. Langsjoen PH, Langsjoen PH, Folkers K. A six-year clinical study of therapy of cardiomyopathy with coenzyme Q10. Int J Tissue React 1990;12(3):169-171.

38. Langsjoen PH, Langsjoen PH, Folkers K. Long-term efficacy and safety of coenzyme Q10 therapy for idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Am J Cardiol 1990;65(7):521-523.

39. Lerman-Sagie T, Rustin P, Lev D, et al. Dramatic improvement in mitochondrial cardiomyopathy following treatment with idebenone. J Inherit Metab Dis 2001;24(1):28-34.

40. Lockwood K, Moesgaard S, Folkers K. Partial and complete regression of breast cancer in patients in relation to dosage of coenzyme Q10. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1994;199(3):1504-1508.

41. Lockwood K, Moesgaard S, Hanioka T, et al. Apparent partial remission of breast cancer in 'high risk' patients supplemented with nutritional antioxidants, essential fatty acids and coenzyme Q10. Mol Aspects Med 1994;15 Suppl:s231-s240.

42. Lockwood K, Moesgaard S, Yamamoto T, et al. Progress on therapy of breast cancer with vitamin Q10 and the regression of metastases. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1995;212(1):172-177.

43. Matsumura T, Saji S, Nakamura R, et al. Evidence for enhanced treatment of periodontal disease by therapy with coenzyme Q. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1973;43(4):537-548.

44. Mazzola C, Guffanti EE, Vaccarella A, et al. Noninvasive assessment of coenzyme Q10 in patients with chronic stable effort angina and moderate heart failure. Curr Ther Res 1987;41(6):923-932.

45. Miyake Y, Shouzu A, Nishikawa M, et al. Effect of treatment with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors on serum coenzyme Q10 in diabetic patients. Arzneimittelforschung 1999;49(4):324-329.

46. Morisco C, Trimarco B, Condorelli M. Effect of coenzyme Q10 therapy in patients with congestive heart failure: a long-term multicenter randomized study. Clin Investig 1993;71(8 Suppl):S134-S136.

47. Mortensen SA, Leth A, Agner E, et al. Dose-related decrease of serum coenzyme Q10 during treatment with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. Mol Aspects Med 1997;18 Suppl:S137-S144.

48. Mortensen SA, Vadhanavikit S, Muratsu K, et al. Coenzyme Q10: clinical benefits with biochemical correlates suggesting a scientific breakthrough in the management of chronic heart failure. Int J Tissue React 1990;12(3):155-162.

49. Mortensen SA. Coenzyme Q10 as an adjunctive therapy in patients with congestive heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;36(1):304-305.

50. Munkholm H, Hansen HH, Rasmussen K. Coenzyme Q10 treatment in serious heart failure. Biofactors 1999;9(2-4):285-289.

51. Musumeci O, Naini A, Slonim AE, et al. Familial cerebellar ataxia with muscle coenzyme Q10 deficiency. Neurology 2001;56(7):849-855.

52. Nielsen AN, Mizuno M, Ratkevicius A, et al. No effect of antioxidant supplementation in triathletes on maximal oxygen uptake, 31P-NMRS detected muscle energy metabolism and muscle fatigue. Int J Sports Med 1999;20(3):154-158.

53. Ogasahara S, Nishikawa Y, Yorifuji S, et al. Treatment of Kearns-Sayre syndrome with coenzyme Q10. Neurology 1986;36(1):45-53.

54. Permanetter B, Rossy W, Klein G, et al. Ubiquinone (coenzyme Q10) in the long-term treatment of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Eur Heart J 1992;13(11):1528-1533.

55. Pogessi L, Galanti G, Corneglio M, et al. Effect of coenzyme Q10 on left ventricular function in patients with dilative cardiomyopathy. Curr Ther Res 1991;49:878-886.

56. Porter DA, Costill DL, Zachwieja JJ, et al. The effect of oral coenzyme Q10 on the exercise tolerance of middle-aged, untrained men. Int J Sports Med 1995;16(7):421-427.

57. Shults CW, Beal MF, Fontaine D, et al. Absorption, tolerability, and effects on mitochondrial activity of oral coenzyme Q10 in parkinsonian patients. Neurology 1998;50(3):793-795.

58. Singh RB, Khanna HK, Niaz MA. Randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial of coenzyme Q10 in chronic renal failure: discovery of a new role. J Nutr Environ Med 2000;10:281-288.

59. Singh RB, Niaz MA, Rastogi SS, et al. Effect of hydrosoluble coenzyme Q10 on blood pressures and insulin resistance in hypertensive patients with coronary artery disease. J Hum Hypertens 1999;13(3):203-208.

60. Singh RB, Wander GS, Rastogi A, et al. Randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial of coenzyme Q10 in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 1998;12(4):347-353.

61. Soja AM, Mortensen SA. [Treatment of chronic cardiac insufficiency with coenzyme Q10, results of meta-analysis in controlled clinical trials]. Ugeskr Laeger 1997;159(49):7302-7308.

62. Sunamori M, Tanaka H, Maruyama T, et al. Clinical experience of coenzyme Q10 to enhance intraoperative myocardial protection in coronary artery revascularization. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 1991;5 Suppl 2:297-300.

63. Tanaka J, Tominaga R, Yoshitoshi M, et al. Coenzyme Q10: the prophylactic effect on low cardiac output following cardiac valve replacement. Ann Thorac Surg 1982;33(2):145-151.

64. The Huntington Study Group. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of coenzyme Q10 and remacemide in Huntington's disease. Neurology 2001;57(3):397-404.

65. Tran MT, Mitchell TM, Kennedy DT, et al. Role of coenzyme Q10 in chronic heart failure, angina, and hypertension. Pharmacotherapy 2001;21(7):797-806.

66. Watson PS, Scalia GM, Galbraith A, et al. Lack of effect of coenzyme Q on left ventricular function in patients with congestive heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol 1999;33(6):1549-1552.

67. Weston SB, Zhou S, Weatherby RP, et al. Does exogenous coenzyme Q10 affect aerobic capacity in endurance athletes? Int J Sport Nutr 1997;7(3):197-206.

68. Yamagami T, Takagi M, Akagami H, et al. Effect of coenzyme Q10 on essential hypertension: a double-blind controlled study. In: Folkers K, Yamamura Y, editors. Biomedical and Clinical Aspects on Coenzyme Q. Amsterdam:Elsevier, 1986:337-343.

69. Yikoski T, Piirainen J, Hanninen O, et al. The effect of coenzyme Q10 on the exercise performance of cross-country skiers. Molec Aspects Med 1997;18 Suppl:s283-s290.

70. Zhou M, Zhi Q, Tang Y, et al. Effects of coenzyme Q10 on myocardial protection during cardiac valve replacement and scavenging free radical activity in vitro. J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) 1999;40(3):355-361.

January 01, 2004

Top Of PageTable Of ContentsPrevious PageNext Page