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The nails are at the end each fingertip on the dorsalen surface present. The main function of the nail is protection and it helps also for a firm grasp for getting thing articles. It consists of a strong relatively flexible keratinous nail plate, which develops from the nail matrix. Under the nail plate there is a soft fabric, the nail bed is called. Between the skin and the nail plate there is a nail fold or – hutchen. Normal healthy nail is slight pink in the color and the surface is convex from side to side. Fingernails grow 1 cm in three months and toe nails take 24 months for the same.

Worth the nails in the disease diagnosis:

The color, the appearance, the form and the condition of the nails give something information about the general health and the hygiene to a person. Nails are examined as program of all doctors, in order to receive some reference points over at the basis lying diseases. Nails straight, regarding, know we makeout the hygiene of a person. The abnormal nail can be because of some diseases kongenital or. The cause for changes in the nail extend from the simple reasons to life-threatening diseases. Therefore the examination is substantial by a doctor for diagnosis. Some abnormal discoveries with probable reasons are discussed here for general consciousness.

1) Hygiene: –

We can constitute a unhygienischen nail very easily. Joggle of the dirt under the distal end of the nail plate can form a probability for income of the pathogens when eating. If nail cutout did not take place correctly, it can result in worm troubles in the children. If the worms creep into the analen opening children, scratched, that the Ova of the worms under the nails accommodates and when eating is let in. Managing nail can also make a skin illness more difficult by the habit scratching. Sharp nails in the small children cause small wounds, if they move the feet stepping or Handdas wavelike do.

2) Color of the nails: –

a) Nails become in the anemia slats.

b) Impermeable white decolorization (leuconychia) is seen in chronic kidney loss and into nephrotisches syndrome.

c) The white will become seen also in hypoalbuminaemia as in the zirrhose and kidney disturbances.

d) Drugs like Sulfagruppe, anti-malaria and antibiotics ect can decolorization in the nails produce.

e) Mushroom-well-behaved infection causes black decolorization.

f) In the Pseudomonas infection nails become black or green.

g) Bettinfarktbildung of occures in the Vasculitis particularly in SLE and in polyarteritis nail.

h) Red points are seen into the nails because of the fragment bleedings in the subacute bacterial endo carditis, rheumatism tables Arthritis, trauma, Kollagengefkrankheiten.

i) Blunt injury produces bleeding and causes blue/black decolorization.

j) Nails become brown in the kidney diseases and in reduced adrenaler activity.

k) In wilsons blue color of the illness in the semicircular in the nail appears.

l) If the blood supply material reduces nail, become yellow. In the jaundice and in the Psoriasis also nail nascently yellowish.

m) In the yellow nail syndrome all nails with the polarizing Urals Erguss become yellowish.

3) Form of the nails: –

a) Strike with a club: Here fabrics at the lower surface of the nails are thickened and the angle between the nail lower surface and the skin is wiped out. The nail will convex and the fingertip becomes tubers and looks like an end of a drum stick. If the condition becomes worse, the nail looks like a parrot bill.

Causes of with of a club of striking: –

Kongenitale injuries

Strict chronic Cyanosis

Lung illnesses like Empyem, bronchiactesis, cancer ulcer of the Bronchus and tuberculosis of the respiratory organs.
Abdominal diseases like Crohns illness, polyposis the colon, ulcers causing Kolitis, life ore erring pants ect

Heart diseases like Fallots Tetralogie, subacute bacterial Endokarditis and ect.

b) Koilonychia: –

Here the nails become like a spoon concave. This condition is seen in iron-deficiency anemia. In this condition the nails become thinly soft and brittle. The normal convexity is replaced by concavity.

c) The Lngsridging is seen in illness raynauds.

d) Hutchen becomes jagged in dermatomyositis.

e) Nail fold telangiectasia is an indication in dermatomyositis, in the Krpersklerose and in SLE.

4) Structure and consistancy: –

a) Mushroom-well-behaved infection of the nail causes decolorization, deformation, Hypertrophie and abnormal fragility.

b) Sleeve pitting corrosion of the nail is of the Psoriasis, from the acute Ekzem and from the Alopezie aereata charecteristic.

c) The inflammation of the Hutchen or nail fold is called Paronychia.

d) Onycholysis is seen the separation of the nail bed in Psoriasis, infection and after he took Tetracycline.

e) Destruction of the nail is seen in lichen planus, Epidermolysis bullosa.

f) Missing nail is seen in nail Patellasyndrom. It is a hereditary illness.

g) Nails become brittle in raynauds the illness and the fire.

h) Falling the nail is seen to the thyroid in diseases of the mushroom-like infection, the Psoriasis and.

5) Growth: –

Reduction in the blood supply material affects the growth of the nails. Nail growth is affected also in the strict ilness. if the illness disappears, growth begins again with the result of the arrangement of the transverse edges. These lines are called Beaus lines and are up to now at the beginning of the illness healpful.